Around 70% of adolescent boys have some breast development during puberty. Gynecomastia is a common disorder where there is a non-cancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue.
Both newborn and adolescent males often experience this temporarily due to the influence of maternal hormones and hormonal changes during puberty.
The development of gynecomastia is usually associated with benign pubertal changes; in adolescent boys, the condition is often a source of psychological distress. However, 75% of pubertal gynecomastia cases resolve within two years of onset without treatment.
In rare cases, gynecomastia has been known to occur in association with certain disease states.
Gynecomastia may be seen in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome or certain cancers, with disorders involving the endocrine system or metabolic dysfunction, with the use of certain medications, or in older males due to a natural decline in testosterone production.
Disturbances in the endocrine system that lead to an increase in the ratio of estrogens/androgens are thought to be responsible for the development of gynecomastia
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